Gel Electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA, or proteins according to molecular size. Charged molecules move through a gel, when an electric current is passed across it based on their size (figure 1). Gel electrophoresis is an integral part of bioscience research and engineering. DNA profiling, DNA sequencing, and genetic … Read More

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

Agarose gel electrophoresis is a widely used method to separates molecules based upon charge, size and shape. It is particularly useful in the separation of charged biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. This course covers agarose, advantages of agarose gels, general principle involved in agarose gel electrophoresis, and its applications. Agarose Agarose, is a … Read More

Nuclear Medicine: COVID-19

The role of Nuclear Medicine in COVID-19 can be increased by redirecting existing radiopharmaceuticals and developing new ones to target different aspects of the virus. The lung perfusion scan can provide helpful information to the referring physician. Imaging could aid in screening or accelerate the speed of diagnosis, especially with limitations of RT-PCR. Research indicates … Read More


SDS-PAGE is an electrophoresis method that allows protein separation by mass. It is also known as sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In SDS-PAGE,  proteins are separated solely based on polypeptide chain length eliminating the influence of the structure and charge. This course covers SDS-PAGE, principle involved, process and applications of SDS-PAGE. Principle Involved Different … Read More

Restriction Enzymes

Restriction enzymes are bacterial enzymes that have the ability to cut double-stranded DNA at specific sites. These are also known as restriction endonucleases. They occur naturally in bacteria as a weapon to fight against the invading viruses. Restrictions sites in the viral genome are cleaved by the restriction enzymes. These are present in bacterium, fragmenting … Read More


A centrifuge is a device that uses centrifugal force to separate two or more substances of different density or mass (Figure 1). Basis of Separation Materials with heavier masses move faster and farther away from the central point than those with lighter masses. Principle Involved A centrifuge consists of a fixed base and a center … Read More

Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC)

Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC) is a separation technique in which gas (usually inert gas, such as helium or nonreactive gas, such as nitrogen), is used as a mobile phase (Figure 1) , and liquid as a stationary phase. Basis of separation is difference in partition coefficient of volatilized compounds between liquid and gas phases when the … Read More

Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC)

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a simple and inexpensive technique used to judge the purity of a synthesized compound or to indicate the extent of progress of a chemical reaction. It is a solid-liquid form of chromatography where the stationary phase is normally a polar absorbent and the mobile phase is a single solvent or … Read More

Paper Chromatography

Paper chromatography is an analytical technique used for separation of mixtures into their components for identification (Figure 1), purification, and quantification. It is a useful technique as it is quick, has high resolution and ease of detection when separating small samples. The mobile phase is usually an alcohol solvent mixture, while the stationary phase is … Read More

Applications of Radioactive Isotopes

Applications of radioactive isotopes are varied in several areas of science. It ranges from the field of agriculture to the diagnosis of diseases. Agricultural Applications Radioisotopes are being widely used in plant nutrition studies and several researches are being conducted in many countries for using radiation sources to preserve certain types of agricultural produce, such … Read More