Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids are macromolecules composed of monomeric units called nucleotides joined together by phosphodiester bonds. These nucleotides constitute DNA and RNA. Learning Objective: Describe the basic structure of nucleic acids and compare & contrast the structure of DNA and RNA. In phosphodiester bonds, one phosphoric acid molecule forms bonds with the 3′ carbon of one … Read More

Lipids

Lipids are esters of long chain fatty acids. These are a diverse group of naturally-occurring organic compounds, such as fat, waxes, sterols, glycerides and phospholipids (Figure 1). Learning Objective: Identify different kinds of lipids, their characteristics, and major functions in the body. These compounds are similar to each other as they are soluble in non-polar … Read More

Proteins

Proteins are compounds made of large number of amino acids joined together by peptide linkages to form long polypeptide chains. Learning Objective: Demonstrate monomeric units of proteins, identify various protein structure, hemoglobin, and several major functions of proteins Amino acids are the building blocks of peptides and proteins. They act as intermediates in cellular metabolism. … Read More

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are biomolecules composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The general formula for carhohydrates is Cn(H2O)n. Learning Objectives: Understand carbohydrates and describe the structure of mono-, di-, and poly-saccharides. They are commonly known as sugars or sacchrides (Figure 1). Carbohydrates play several roles in living organisms. In animals they acts as an energy source and … Read More

The Cell Cycle

Actively dividing eukaryote cells pass through a series of stages known as cell cycle. The cell cycle is to accurately duplicates chromosomal DNA and then segregate its copies into two genetically identical daughter cells. Learning Objective: Cell cycle and  the role of the cell cycle plays carrying out the essential functions in the cell. This … Read More

Viruses

Viruses are microscopic, non-cellular parasites. They lack the capacity to thrive and reproduce outside of a host body. Learning Objectives: To understand viruses and to explain life cycle of a virus. In 1898, Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch found evidence that the cause of foot-and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle, virus, smaller than … Read More

Biogeochemical Cycle

Biogeochemical cycle refers to the flow of an elements in nature between the organisms and the environment. This flow is cyclic and consistent. Elements within these cycles flow in various forms from the nonliving (abiotic) components of the biosphere to the living (biotic) components and back. Biogeochemical cycle is also known as inorganic-organic cycle. The … Read More

Coronavirus

The outbreak of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19 for short) has created a global health crisis (Figure 1). Not only do the high infection rates threaten the survival of millions, but the safety measures necessary to fight it also create a crisis in mental health and erode our sense of well-being. This course covers introduction … Read More

Vaccines for COVID-19

More than a hundred different teams of scientists are developing vaccines for COVID-19. Developing vaccines from scratch is not the fastest option for stopping the ongoing pandemic no matter how effective they will be, but it is does constitute the desirable long-term solution. The time required to develop and deploy a safe and effective vaccine … Read More

Bacteria

Bacteria, (singular: Bacterium) are the simplest microscopic prokaryotes that belong to the Kingdom Monera. They lack membrane-bound nucleus and internal organelles. Bacteria live in a variety of habitats such as the soil, the ocean, and even the insides of the human gut. They exist either as free-living organisms or as parasites. These are most successful … Read More