Biogeochemical Cycle

Biogeochemical cycle refers to the flow of an elements in nature between the organisms and the environment. This flow is cyclic and consistent. Elements within these cycles flow in various forms from the nonliving (abiotic) components of the biosphere to the living (biotic) components and back. Biogeochemical cycle is also known as inorganic-organic cycle. The … Read More

Structure of the Earth

To study seismic waves, topographic maps, plate tectonics, we should know the structure of the earth. Earth is the only planet known to have an atmosphere containing free oxygen, oceans of water on its surface, and life. This course covers the following: the structure of the earth  seismic waves topographic maps Structure of the Earth … Read More

Chemical Reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance. This involves breaking or formation of bonds between the atoms or ions. This course covers examples of chemical reaction , types of chemical bonds, and types of chemical reaction. When we hear the word chemistry, we envision … Read More

Rock Cycle

The rock cycle is the continuous process of the changing states of earth minerals. It describes the formation, breakdown, and reformation of a rock. To understand rock cycle, we must learn about types of rocks first. This course covers types of rocks and the rock cycle. Types of Rocks A rock is made of collection … Read More

Continental Drift Theory

Continental drift theory was developed in 1912 by Alfred Wegener, a German meteorologist, climatologist, and geophysicist.  This course covers Continental drift and Plate tectonic theory. Continental Drift According to Alfred Wegener, the continents had all originally been a part of one enormous landmass or supercontinent about 240 million years ago before breaking apart and drifting … Read More

Gel Electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA, or proteins according to molecular size. Charged molecules move through a gel, when an electric current is passed across it based on their size (figure 1). Gel electrophoresis is an integral part of bioscience research and engineering. DNA profiling, DNA sequencing, and genetic … Read More

Force and Motion

Force and motion are fundamental and integral parts of our daily lives. When we see an acrobat flawlessly performing her act at the circus (Figure 1), have we ever thought how she can do that? It requires lots of hard work and right amount of force to do that. A force is a pushing or … Read More

Human Muscular System

Human muscular system or muscles is often thought as amount of strength we possess. Muscles work with each other to perform various functions. Human muscles (Figure 1) not only provide strength, but are also associated with movement, posture, and balancing the whole body. Muscular system is associated with movement of body parts, such as hand … Read More

Human Respiratory System

Human respiratory system involves the organs responsible for breathing, i.e. exchange of gases (taking in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide) between the organism and the environment. There are two basic types of respiration: external and internal. External respiration is a physical process of exchange of O2 and CO2 between the organisms and the surroundings. … Read More

STEM Challenge Training

The STEM Challenge Training is a 9-day course that teaches students each component and job that goes into an entire STEM Challenge (Figure 1). Each of the 7 steps (Identify Problem, Research, Develop Solution, Design, Build, Test and Evaluate) are taught explicitly in 15-30-minute lessons. By the end of the challenge, students will understand the … Read More