Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids are macromolecules composed of monomeric units called nucleotides joined together by phosphodiester bonds. These nucleotides constitute DNA and RNA. Learning Objective: Describe the basic structure of nucleic acids and compare & contrast the structure of DNA and RNA. In phosphodiester bonds, one phosphoric acid molecule forms bonds with the 3′ carbon of one … Read More


Lipids are esters of long chain fatty acids. These are a diverse group of naturally-occurring organic compounds, such as fat, waxes, sterols, glycerides and phospholipids (Figure 1). Learning Objective: Identify different kinds of lipids, their characteristics, and major functions in the body. These compounds are similar to each other as they are soluble in non-polar … Read More


Proteins are compounds made of large number of amino acids joined together by peptide linkages to form long polypeptide chains. Learning Objective: Demonstrate monomeric units of proteins, identify various protein structure, hemoglobin, and several major functions of proteins Amino acids are the building blocks of peptides and proteins. They act as intermediates in cellular metabolism. … Read More


Carbohydrates are biomolecules composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The general formula for carhohydrates is Cn(H2O)n. Learning Objectives: Understand carbohydrates and describe the structure of mono-, di-, and poly-saccharides. They are commonly known as sugars or sacchrides (Figure 1). Carbohydrates play several roles in living organisms. In animals they acts as an energy source and … Read More

Biogeochemical Cycle

Biogeochemical cycle refers to the flow of an elements in nature between the organisms and the environment. This flow is cyclic and consistent. Elements within these cycles flow in various forms from the nonliving (abiotic) components of the biosphere to the living (biotic) components and back. Biogeochemical cycle is also known as inorganic-organic cycle. The … Read More

Periodic Table

The periodic table arranges all the elements by their chemical and physical properties. Learning Objective: To understand the organization of elements in the periodic table and identify their properties. Elements Elements are everywhere: some we can see, such as, silver, gold (Figure 1), sodium, while others are invisible, such as, oxygen, helium, hydrogen. An element … Read More

Atomic Structure

Atomic structure consists of a nucleus, protons, neutrons and electrons. Atoms are basic building blocks of matter. This course introduces the concept of atomic structure and covers the following topics: matter atoms, subatomic particles atomic number and mass number isotopes various atomic theories Matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space (has … Read More

Chemical Reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance. This involves breaking or formation of bonds between the atoms or ions. This course covers examples of chemical reaction , types of chemical bonds, and types of chemical reaction. When we hear the word chemistry, we envision … Read More


In chemical science, dialysis refers to the process of separation of suspended colloidal particles from dissolved ions or molecules of small dimensions (Figure 1). Separation occurs due to their unequal rates of diffusion through the pores of a semipermeable membrane, such as dialysis tubing. The process of dialysis was first observed in 1861 by a … Read More


Crystallization is a solid-liquid separation technique, in which mass transfer of solute from liquid solution (parent phase) to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs (Figure 1). It is used to purify solid compounds. Cystallization is the oldest method for recovering solids from a solution. Fractional crystallization is a step-wise separation technique, which relies upon liquid-solid … Read More