Fractional distillation

Fractional distillation is a process to separate mixtures of volatile liquids and miscible liquids. It is commonly used to separate various components (difference in boiling point is less than 25oC) of a mixture depending upon their boiling points. Principle Involved If a liquid is heated in closed container, some molecules present at the surface of … Read More


Osmosis is a movement of water from region of high water concentration to region of low water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane until a state of dynamic equilibrium is reached (Figure 1). It is a passive process.  Water molecules are free to pass across the cell membrane in both directions. As the concentration of water … Read More

Freeze Drying

Freeze Drying is also known as Lyophilization or cryo-dessication. It is a process for removing water from the substance by the process of dehydration under vacuum while substance is in frozen state. Lyophilization technology is used to freeze-dry products, such as biologicals, bacterial cultures, analytical chemistry moieties, and therapeutic molecules (e.g., antibodies, vaccines, drugs, and … Read More


Radiopharmaceuticals (RP) are chemical substances that contain radioactive atoms within their structure. They are used as tracers in nuclear medicine technology for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This course covers various kinds of radiopharmaceuticals, calculating effective half life, determining radiochemical purity, and applications of radiopharmaceuticals used in medical science. Characteristics More than 95% of radiopharmaceuticals are … Read More

Chemical Separation Techniques

Chemical separation techniques play a key role in analyzing molecules or compounds used for biological, physical, and chemical research. They are a powerful tool set to investigate mechanisms of various biological processes. It is used to separate a mixture into its two or more distinct components, which are used further for the analysis of physical … Read More


Chromatography is the separation of a mixture by passing it in solution or suspension or as a vapor through a medium in which, the components move at different rates. It involves a sample being dissolved in a mobile phase (which may be a gas, a liquid or a supercritical fluid). Then, mobile phase is then … Read More