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Molecular biology is the field of biology (Figure 1) that studies the interactions between the various systems of a cell.

Figure 1. Molecular biology lab
Figure 1. Molecular biology lab

This interactions include the interrelationship of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and carry out the biological processes essential for the cell functions and maintenance.

Restriction enzymes are also called ‘molecular scissors’ as they cleave DNA at or near specific recognition sequences known as restriction sites.

These enzymes make one incision on each of the two strands of DNA.  They are also called restriction endonucleases.

Molecular genetic testing, most of which are different from the uses of traditional clinical laboratory testing and even molecular biologic testing in diseases, such as, infectious disease, cancer etc.

Types of Techniques

Various techniques/steps are used in genomics are shown below:

  • Genomic DNA isolation
  • Separation of DNA
  • Cutting and joining of DNA
  • Cloning with vectors
  • Detection of gene of interest
  • Recombinant DNA and cloning
  • Production of copies of DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • DNA Sequencing

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