Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC)

Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC) is a separation technique in which gas (usually inert gas, such as helium or nonreactive gas, such as nitrogen), is used as a mobile phase (Figure 1) , and liquid as a stationary phase. Basis of separation is difference in partition coefficient of volatilized compounds between liquid and gas phases when the … Read More


Autoradiography¬†involves localization, recording of a radiolabel within a solid specimen, and production of image in a photographic emulsion. These photographic emulsions consist of silver halide crystals suspended in a clear phase composed mainly of gelatin. In 1867, first autoradiography was obtained accidentally, when a blackening was produced on emulsions of silver chloride and iodide by … Read More


Osmosis is a movement of water from region of high water concentration to region of low water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane until a state of dynamic equilibrium is reached (Figure 1). It is a passive process.  Water molecules are free to pass across the cell membrane in both directions. As the concentration of water … Read More


Radioactivity is a spontaneous process by which unstable atoms of an element lose excess energy by emitting that energy in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves to gain stability. This course introduces concepts of radioactivity, and covers the following topics: measurement of radioactivity radioactive waste disposal. Isotopes of an element differ in their physical … Read More


Biomolecules are organic molecules produced by cells and living organisms. The four major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and fats. All living forms — bacteria, algae, plant, and animals —¬† are made of these macromolecules. This course covers: What biomolecules are, classify them and understand their functions. Various kinds of carbohydrates and their … Read More