Vaccines for COVID-19

More than a hundred different teams of scientists are developing vaccines for COVID-19. Developing vaccines from scratch is not the fastest option for stopping the ongoing pandemic no matter how effective they will be, but it is does constitute the desirable long-term solution. The time required to develop and deploy a safe and effective vaccine … Read More


Bacteria, (singular: Bacterium) are the simplest microscopic prokaryotes that belong to the Kingdom Monera. They lack membrane-bound nucleus and internal organelles. Bacteria live in a variety of habitats such as the soil, the ocean, and even the insides of the human gut. They exist either as free-living organisms or as parasites. These are most successful … Read More


Algae are a diverse group of undifferentiated aquatic organisms that contain chlorophyll. They range in size from microscopic organisms to giant kelp. They are important as primary producers and provide oxygen for other aquatic life. Algae are plant-like organisms that are photosynthetic and aquatic, with simple reproductive structures, but do not have true roots, stems, … Read More

Gel Electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA, or proteins according to molecular size. Charged molecules move through a gel, when an electric current is passed across it based on their size (figure 1). Gel electrophoresis is an integral part of bioscience research and engineering. DNA profiling, DNA sequencing, and genetic … Read More

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

Agarose gel electrophoresis is a widely used method to separates molecules based upon charge, size and shape. It is particularly useful in the separation of charged biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. This course covers agarose, advantages of agarose gels, general principle involved in agarose gel electrophoresis, and its applications. Agarose Agarose, is a … Read More

Nuclear Medicine: COVID-19

The role of Nuclear Medicine in COVID-19 can be increased by redirecting existing radiopharmaceuticals and developing new ones to target different aspects of the virus. The lung perfusion scan can provide helpful information to the referring physician. Imaging could aid in screening or accelerate the speed of diagnosis, especially with limitations of RT-PCR. Research indicates … Read More

Human Blood Types

Karl Landsteiner discovered the ABO human blood types in 1901. Until then, blood had been assumed to be the same for everyone, thus leading to many tragic consequences of blood transfusions. ABO blood groups are determined by the gene I (isoagglutinin). There are three types of alleles of gene I, namely, IA, IB and Io. … Read More


SDS-PAGE is an electrophoresis method that allows protein separation by mass. It is also known as sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In SDS-PAGE,  proteins are separated solely based on polypeptide chain length eliminating the influence of the structure and charge. This course covers SDS-PAGE, principle involved, process and applications of SDS-PAGE. Principle Involved Different … Read More

Restriction Enzymes

Restriction enzymes are bacterial enzymes that have the ability to cut double-stranded DNA at specific sites. These are also known as restriction endonucleases. They occur naturally in bacteria as a weapon to fight against the invading viruses. Restrictions sites in the viral genome are cleaved by the restriction enzymes. These are present in bacterium, fragmenting … Read More


A centrifuge is a device that uses centrifugal force to separate two or more substances of different density or mass (Figure 1). Basis of Separation Materials with heavier masses move faster and farther away from the central point than those with lighter masses. Principle Involved A centrifuge consists of a fixed base and a center … Read More