Human Skeletal System

Human skeletal system provides support, protects internal organs, and allows movement. The human skeletal system consists mainly of bones and cartilages (Figure 1A and 1B). Tendons, ligaments, and fibrous connective tissues provide additional support to the bones and ligaments. Some animals, such as worms, do not have a skeleton. Other animals, such as insects, fish, … Read More

Human Muscular System

Human muscular system or muscles is often thought as amount of strength we possess. Muscles work with each other to perform various functions. Human muscles (Figure 1) not only provide strength, but are also associated with movement, posture, and balancing the whole body. Muscular system is associated with movement of body parts, such as hand … Read More

Human Respiratory System

Human respiratory system involves the organs responsible for breathing, i.e. exchange of gases (taking in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide) between the organism and the environment. There are two basic types of respiration: external and internal. External respiration is a physical process of exchange of O2 and CO2 between the organisms and the surroundings. … Read More

Human Circulatory System

Human circulatory system mainly consists of a heart, a system of blood vessels, and blood. Other specialized organs, like lungs and kidneys play vital roles for the exchange of materials between blood and the external environment. It is also known as cardiovascular system. What makes the heart such an important organ? How is heart connected … Read More


Invertebrates are animals without a backbone or vertebral column. Vertebral column is made up of small bones called vertebrae. The scientific name assigned to all animals without backbones is invertebrate, meaning without vertebrae This course covers characteristics of invertebrates and classify them. distinguish between invertebrates and vertebrates. characteristics, classification, and life cycles of Protozoa Porifera … Read More


The animal kingdom is divided into invertebrates and vertebrates. Vertebrates are animals with backbone or vertebrae. They represent the majority of the phylum Chordata. They are found in land, oceans, rivers, forests, mountains and deserts. This course covers the following: Characteristics of vertebrates and classify them. Characteristics, classification, and life cycles of Agnathas Pisces Amphibians … Read More

STEM Challenge Training

The STEM Challenge Training is a 9-day course that teaches students each component and job that goes into an entire STEM Challenge (Figure 1). Each of the 7 steps (Identify Problem, Research, Develop Solution, Design, Build, Test and Evaluate) are taught explicitly in 15-30-minute lessons. By the end of the challenge, students will understand the … Read More

Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC)

Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC) is a separation technique in which gas (usually inert gas, such as helium or nonreactive gas, such as nitrogen), is used as a mobile phase (Figure 1) , and liquid as a stationary phase. Basis of separation is difference in partition coefficient of volatilized compounds between liquid and gas phases when the … Read More

Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC)

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a simple and inexpensive technique used to judge the purity of a synthesized compound or to indicate the extent of progress of a chemical reaction. It is a solid-liquid form of chromatography where the stationary phase is normally a polar absorbent and the mobile phase is a single solvent or … Read More

Paper Chromatography

Paper chromatography is an analytical technique used for separation of mixtures into their components for identification (Figure 1), purification, and quantification. It is a useful technique as it is quick, has high resolution and ease of detection when separating small samples. The mobile phase is usually an alcohol solvent mixture, while the stationary phase is … Read More