Applications of Radioactive Isotopes

Applications of radioactive isotopes are varied in several areas of science. It ranges from the field of agriculture to the diagnosis of diseases. Agricultural Applications Radioisotopes are being widely used in plant nutrition studies and several researches are being conducted in many countries for using radiation sources to preserve certain types of agricultural produce, such … Read More


Autoradiography¬†involves localization, recording of a radiolabel within a solid specimen, and production of image in a photographic emulsion. These photographic emulsions consist of silver halide crystals suspended in a clear phase composed mainly of gelatin. In 1867, first autoradiography was obtained accidentally, when a blackening was produced on emulsions of silver chloride and iodide by … Read More

Freeze Drying

Freeze Drying is also known as Lyophilization or cryo-dessication. It is a process for removing water from the substance by the process of dehydration under vacuum while substance is in frozen state. Lyophilization technology is used to freeze-dry products, such as biologicals, bacterial cultures, analytical chemistry moieties, and therapeutic molecules (e.g., antibodies, vaccines, drugs, and … Read More


Radiopharmaceuticals (RP) are chemical substances that contain radioactive atoms within their structure. They are used as tracers in nuclear medicine technology for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This course covers various kinds of radiopharmaceuticals, calculating effective half life, determining radiochemical purity, and applications of radiopharmaceuticals used in medical science. Characteristics More than 95% of radiopharmaceuticals are … Read More


Biomolecules are organic molecules produced by cells and living organisms. The four major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and fats. All living forms — bacteria, algae, plant, and animals —¬† are made of these macromolecules. This course covers: What biomolecules are, classify them and understand their functions. Various kinds of carbohydrates and their … Read More

Plant Diversity

Plant diversity refers to the existence of wide variety of plant species in their natural environments. There are around 300,000-500,000 species of vascular plants that exist on earth (Figure 1). This course covers: Understand plants and the basis of their classification. Explain characteristics and Life cycles of Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms. Understand structure and … Read More


Genetics is the study of heredity or how characteristics of living organisms are transmitted from one generation to another. This course cover the following: Understand genes and biological inheritance. Identify DNA and RNA. Explain DNA replication, transcription, and translation/protein synthesis. Identify various kinds of mutations. Understand genetic engineering, types, and its application. Explain Human molecular … Read More


Microorganisms are microscopic organisms commonly known as microbes. They are present everywhere — even inside of our bodies. This diverse group of living organisms are too tiny to be seen without a microscope. Microorganism include bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae, archaea, protists, and protozoa. This course covers the following: Characteristics of microorganisms and classify them Characteristics, … Read More

Cell Division

Cell division is the process cells go through to divide. There are several types of cell division. Thousands of cells die daily in our body and thousands of new ones are produced. This happens by the process of cell division, in which a parental cell gives rise to two daughter cells. The process involves both … Read More

Cell Structure and Function

A cell is the smallest unit of living organisms.It is composed of structures called organelles, which perform diverse functions. For example, mitochondria is responsible for cellular respiration and chloroplast for photosynthesis. This course covers following: Characteristics of a cell Modern cell theory Distinguish between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cell organelles Molecular composition of a cell Hierarchical … Read More